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The Illustrated Enemy
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"The first murders of English men, women and children, perpetruated at the bombardment of Yarmouth, Scarborough, and Whitby, may have been intended merely as a demonstration that Germany could strike even at an island that was impregnable. The first use of the submarine against a merchant ship may have been made in the hope that a mere demonstration of frightfulness would save her from the necessity of repeating it, by frightening every trading ship off the sea......" Arthur Pollen, Kulture in Cartoons, 1917.